PHIRE 1 & 2 - The Physikalisches Institut Radiometer Experiments
PHIRE is a goniometer/reflectometer experiment. It is designed to measure the reflected radiance from a surface as a function of the angles of incidence and emission and the phase angle (i, e, and g, respectively, see figure). The concept for the experiment is similar to the Bloomsburg University Goniometer (BUG; run by Michael Shepard) and the Spectro-gonio-radiometer developed at the IPAG/University of Grenoble by Bernard Schmitt. Slightly different systems are used at JPL and the Astronomy Group (including Karri Muinonen) of the University of Helsinki also work in this field.
Why is it interesting?
The PHIRE-2 instrument is the central part of the Planetary Ice laboratory where analog samples are characterized using different complementary methods: photometry, microscopy, electric and thermal properties etc.
- Pommerol, A., N. Thomas, B. Jost, P. Beck, C. Okubo, and A.S. McEwen, (2013) Photometric properties of Mars soils analogs, J. Geophys. Res. 118, 2045-2072.
- Jost, B., B. Gundlach, A. Pommerol, J. Oesert, S.N. Gorb, J. Blum, N. Thomas, (2013), Micrometer-sized ice particles for planetary-science experiments - II. Bidirectional reflectance, Icarus 225, 352-366.
- Beck, P., A. Pommerol, N. Thomas, B. Schmitt, F. Moynier and J.-A. Barrat, (2012), The Photometry of Meteorites, Icarus, 218, 364-377.
- Pommerol, A., N. Thomas, M. Affolter, G. Portyankina, B. Jost, K. Seiferlin, and K.-M. Aye, (2011), Photometry and bulk physical properties of Solar System surfaces icy analogs: the Planetary Ice Laboratory at University of Bern, Planetary and Space Science, 59, 1601-1612.
- Gunderson, K.and N.Thomas, (2008) Polarimetric NIR reflectance measurements of regolith simulants at zero phase angle, Planetary and Space Science, 56, 1925-1938.
- Gunderson, K., B.S. Lüthi, P. Russell, and N. Thomas, (2007) Visible/NIR photometric signatures of liquid water in Martian regolith simulant, Planetary and Space Science, 55, 1272-1282.
- Gunderson, K., N.Thomas, and J.A.Whitby, (2006) First measurements with the Physikalisches Institut Radiometric Experiment (PHIRE), Planetary and Space Science, 54, 1046-1056.
Space Research & Planetary Sciences Division Web Site